篇名

美國勞工強制接種COVID-19疫苗案(一)【寰宇醫事裁判】   免費試閱

並列篇名

Mandatory Covid-19 Vaccination for U.S. Labors: Case I

中文摘要

2021年11月,美國職業安全與衛生管理局發布一項針對全國大部分勞動力之命令。僱傭超過100人之雇主必須執行系爭命令,將有約8400萬名勞工受此規範。勞工必須接種COVID-19疫苗,或每週自費篩檢陰性且工作時配戴口罩;系爭命令也優先於各州法律。州政府、雇主與非營利組織對系爭命令提出質疑,第五巡迴上訴法院率先中止系爭命令;嗣後第六巡迴法院併案處理,卻撤銷第五巡迴上訴法院之判決,認為系爭命令並未超過職業安全與衛生管理局之職權。聲請人向最高法院請求緊急救濟,本院認為職業安全與衛生法僅授權職業安全與衛生管理局專責職業危害與勞工安全健康,而不包含廣泛的公衛措施;COVID-19的感染風險並非每一職業均會面臨且程度不同,職業安全與衛生管理局未見於此而一概要求所有勞工接種疫苗,在沒有國會的明確授權下是超出其職權。因此,最高法院中止系爭命令之適用。

英文摘要

In November 2021, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued an order targeting the majority of the workforce in the State. Employers with more than 100 employees must enforce the issued order and approximately 84 million workers will be subject to this regulation: Workers must be vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine or be screened negative weekly at their own expense and wear a mask at work. The issued order overrides the states laws as well. States, employers and nonprofits challenged the tethering order. The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals was the first to stay the order; the Sixth Circuit later consolidated and reversed the Fifth Circuit’s decision, holding that the order did not exceed the authority of the OSHA. The claimant sought emergency relief from the Supreme Court. The Court held that the Occupational Safety and Health Act only authorizes OSHA to specialize in occupational hazards and worker safety and health, and does not encompass a wide range of public health measures; the risk of COVID-19 infection is not unique to every occupation and varies in magnitude, and OSHA exceeded its authority by requiring all workers to be vaccinated without explicit congressional authorization. Accordingly, the Supreme Court stayed the application of the order at issue.

起訖頁

102-108

出版單位
DOI

10.53106/241553062022050067008  複製DOI  DOI查詢

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